Proprietary Information & Inventions Assignment Agreements


In the modern startup landscape, it is increasingly common for founders to develop or acquire intellectual property ("IP") before officially forming a company. Startups often rely on the innovative ideas, inventions, and proprietary knowledge brought into existence by their founders. This pre-existing IP serves as a foundation upon which the startup is built, providing a competitive advantage, attracting investors, and shaping the direction of the business. The ability to leverage and protect this valuable IP is crucial for startups to establish themselves in their respective market and to secure a competitive position in the industry.

However, today's business landscape is fiercely competitive. Protecting IP is more critical than ever. Founders and their businesses invest significant time, resources, and creativity into developing proprietary information and inventions that provide a competitive edge. One essential tool for safeguarding these valuable assets is the Proprietary Information & Inventions Assignment Agreement ("PIIA") (sometimes called a Confidential Information & Inventions Assignment Agreement (CIIA)). This legally binding contract ensures that proprietary information remains confidential, assigns pre-formation and post-formation inventions, assets, and IP to the company, and establishes clear obligations for employees and contractors. In this blog post, we will explore the significance of PIIAs, their key elements, including key definitions, and address the current state of flux for non-compete agreements.

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Understanding Proprietary Information

In the context of PIIA's, proprietary information is usually broadly construed to include proprietary, confidential, and/or other sensitive knowledge, data, trade secrets, inventions, or innovations that provide a competitive advantage to a business. This can encompass a wide range of assets, such as customer lists, marketing strategies, manufacturing processes, software code, financial information, and more. PIIAs are designed to protect these valuable intangible assets by establishing ownership and preventing their unauthorized use or disclosure.

Purpose and Benefits of PIIAs

PIIAs serve several essential purposes for businesses:

Clear Ownership

PIIAs clarify that any proprietary information, inventions, and trade secrets developed or acquired by founders in anticipation of forming their new company, or by employees or contractors during their engagement with the company, are the sole and exclusive property of the company. This ensures that the business retains full control and ownership of its intellectual assets, even if the founder, employee or contractor leaves the company or a contractor completes their work. In addition to giving comfort to management that they will be able to commercially exploit these valuable assets in the conduct of the company's business, PIIA's give comfort to investors. Investors view a startup's IP as the "goose that lays the golden egg" because it represents the innovative ideas, inventions, and proprietary knowledge that can generate significant value and differentiate the startup in the market. IP serves as a foundation for future growth, potential revenue streams, and a competitive edge. Investors recognize that protecting and leveraging this IP is essential for long-term success, making it a critical factor in assessing the investment potential of a startup.

Protection Against Misappropriation

PIIAs prohibit employees or contractors from disclosing or using proprietary information for personal gain or on behalf of a competitor. By signing the agreement, individuals acknowledge their responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of proprietary information during and after their engagement with the company. This safeguarding measure ensures that sensitive information remains secure and prevents potential harm and loss.

Encouraging Innovation

A properly prepare PIIA should include provisions by which founders, employees and contractors assign to the company all inventions, innovations and other works which they develop (alone or with others) if they are related to the company's business. This not only protects the company, but fosters a culture of innovation (especially if the employees receive stock or options under an ESOP), as employees are aware that their creative output is valuable to the business and will be appropriately protected. This helps businesses harness the full potential of their employees' inventive ideas while safeguarding those ideas for the company's exclusive use.

Legal Recourse

In case of a breach of the agreement, PIIAs provide a legal foundation for pursuing remedies. This can include seeking injunctive relief, monetary damages, and other appropriate actions to protect the business's interests. Having a well-drafted PIIA in place strengthens the legal position of the business in case enforcement actions become necessary.

Key Elements of a PIIA

To ensure comprehensive protection of proprietary information and inventions, the following key elements should be included in a PIIA:

Definition of Proprietary Information

Clearly defining what constitutes proprietary information helps avoid confusion and ensures comprehensive protection. The agreement should provide a comprehensive and specific definition of the types of information that fall under the proprietary category, leaving no room for ambiguity. A customary definition of "proprietary information" will encompass a broad range of intellectual property and confidential materials (identifying with specificity many examples) that the company wishes to protect from unauthorized disclosure or use by employees or contractors. The specific details of the definition may vary depending on the nature of the business and the industry in which it operates, ensuring that it adequately covers the proprietary information unique to that particular company.

Definition of Inventions

In addition to defining proprietary information, PIIAs should also clearly define what constitutes "inventions." This definition should encompass any novel and useful creations that fall within the scope of employment or engagement with the company. It ensures that all inventive ideas generated by employees or contractors are included within the scope of the agreement. Similar to the definition of Proprietary Information, a well drafted definition of "Inventions" will be broad and inclusive (enumerating many examples) to cover a wide range of innovative concepts or creations that arise from the individual's work within the scope of their employment or contractual relationship with the company. This ensures that the company has ownership rights and control over any inventive ideas or developments generated by its employees or contractors, allowing the company to protect, utilize, and commercialize those inventions for its own benefit.

Confidentiality Obligations

PIIAs should outline the responsibilities of employees or contractors to maintain the confidentiality of proprietary information and inventions during and after their engagement with the company. This includes taking reasonable measures to prevent unauthorized access or disclosure of sensitive information. Additionally, the agreement should specify the consequences of violating these obligations, which can range from termination of employment to legal action.

Ownership and Assignment

A PIIA must include enforceable, legal language that unambiguously provides that all proprietary information and inventions created during the course of employment or contract belong to the company. This ensures that the business retains exclusive rights to utilize, protect, and exploit these intellectual assets. By signing the agreement, employees or contractors acknowledge that any intellectual property they create in the scope of their work is owned by the company.

Non-Compete and Non-Solicitation Clauses

Some PIIAs may also incorporate non-compete and non-solicitation clauses to prevent employees or contractors from using the acquired knowledge to compete or solicit clients or personnel upon leaving the company. These clauses restrict individuals from engaging in similar business activities, joining a competitor, or poaching clients for a specific duration after their departure.

Current State of Flux for Non-Compete Agreements

It is important to note that the landscape surrounding non-compete restrictions is in a state of flux in many jurisdictions. Some states' courts and legislatures have imposed limitations on the enforceability of non-compete clauses, aiming to strike a balance between protecting businesses' legitimate interests and fostering employee mobility and competition. Therefore, it is crucial to consult with a business law counsel familiar with the specific laws and regulations in your jurisdiction to ensure compliance and maximize the enforceability of non-compete clauses within your PIIAs.

Dispute Resolution

Including a dispute resolution clause provides a framework for resolving conflicts arising from the agreement, such as through mediation, arbitration, or litigation. This ensures that any disputes regarding the interpretation, enforcement, or breach of the PIIA can be resolved efficiently and with minimal disruption to the business. Dispute resolution provisions should be carefully and thoughtfully drafted by legal counsel to the business to ensure enforceability. Thought should be given to alternative dispute resolution possibilities, such as mediation, arbitration, lawsuit. Legal counsel can address key aspects such as the choice of venue, choice of law, and the availability or appealability of the dispute resolution process. By incorporating these elements, businesses can establish a comprehensive framework that promotes amicable resolution, reduces time and costs associated with traditional litigation, ensures compliance with relevant laws, protects confidentiality, and enhances the enforceability of the PIIA.


As businesses continue to rely heavily on intellectual property to gain a competitive edge, protecting proprietary information and inventions is paramount. Proprietary Information and Inventions Assignment Agreements play a vital role in safeguarding the valuable intellectual assets of startups and existing businesses. By clearly defining ownership, establishing confidentiality obligations, outlining the definition of inventions, and addressing the current state of non-compete agreements, PIIAs provide businesses with a solid legal foundation to protect their proprietary information. Consulting with a business law firm experienced in intellectual property matters can ensure that PIIAs are customized to fit your specific needs, giving you the peace of mind that your intellectual assets are protected against misappropriation and unauthorized use. Implementing a well-drafted PIIA not only safeguards your business's confidential information but also encourages innovation, protects your competitive advantage, and enhances your legal recourse in case of a breach. Prioritizing the protection of your intellectual property through PIIAs sets the stage for long-term success in today's knowledge-driven economy.

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I have become very impressed with the efficiency possibilities of AI. So, I gave ChatGPT a try. I generated this text in part with GPT-3, OpenAI's large-scale language-generation model. After it generated its own draft language, I reviewed, edited, revised, and expanded on it to my own liking and to ensure accuracy in all material respects. WLF takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this article.


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