Simple Agreements for Future Equity (SAFE's)


In the ever-evolving landscape of startup financing, innovative instruments are continually emerging to meet the needs of early-stage companies and investors. One such instrument gaining popularity is the Simple Agreement for Future Equity (SAFE). Designed to provide a streamlined and founder-friendly approach to fundraising, SAFEs offer unique advantages and considerations for both companies and investors. In this blog post, we will explore the origins of SAFEs, their benefits and risks, how they compare to convertible notes, and delve into the key provisions that make up a typical SAFE agreement, including the specifics of Y Combinator SAFEs.

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Origins of the SAFE

The SAFE was first introduced by the renowned startup accelerator Y Combinator as an alternative to traditional convertible notes. It aimed to simplify and expedite the fundraising process for startups while providing investors with a clearer understanding of their rights and obligations. Since its introduction, SAFEs have gained significant traction in the startup ecosystem due to their simplicity and flexibility.

Benefits and Risks

One of the primary benefits of SAFEs is their simplicity. They often involve fewer legal complexities and documentation compared to convertible notes, which can expedite the fundraising process. SAFEs also provide investors with the potential for favorable terms, such as valuation caps and discount rates, allowing them to benefit from the company's future success. However, it is essential to recognize the potential risks associated with SAFEs. As SAFEs are not debt instruments, they do not come with a maturity date or accrue interest, meaning investors may have to wait longer to see a return on their investment. Additionally, the lack of formal debt-like features may result in reduced investor protections compared to convertible notes.

Cf. Convertible Notes

While SAFEs and convertible notes serve similar purposes in startup financing, such as converting into equity upon a predefined trigger event, they differ in key ways. First, convertible notes are debt instruments ... that is, they are contracts that memorialize a loan to the company with an obligation to repay the noteholder.  As a debt instrument, convertible notes bear an interest rate and have a maturity date. Although in practice, it is common for a noteholder to extend the maturity date  which matures prior to conversion, , and can be converted into equity upon a specific trigger event. SAFEs, on the other hand, are investment contracts with no maturity date or interest component. SAFEs focus on the conversion of investment into equity at a future milestone, such as a subsequent financing round.

Are SAFE's Attractive to Investors?

Since their initial visionary introduction, SAFEs have gained popularity among investors. Some have observed that SAFE's took hold first among west coast investors, only later becoming more widely accepted among east coast investors. Either way, they are widely used across the country now. Although lacking the security of the debt feature of a convertible, this benefits the company and gives comfort to the founders. These latter benefits means management will not have the burden and the stress of company debt hanging over their heads. SAFEs still provide a simplified and streamlined investment structure, reducing legal costs and documentation, allowing investors to participate in early-stage financing rounds efficiently and with lower transaction costs to the company in which they are investing. SAFEs offer investor-friendly terms (discussed below) by which investors might benefit from the company's future success. Overall, SAFEs offer an attractive investment option for investors looking to participate in early-stage financing with simplified structures, potential upside, and founder-aligned terms. Of course, without the debt feature, investors will need to exercise care in their choice of companies into which they deploy their funds.

Summary Of Key Safe Provisions

This section briefly describes the key provisions of a Simple Agreement for Future Equity widely in used today. Note that not every SAFE will include all of the economic terms described below; most, in fact, do not include all of them. Click here to read more about these provisions in greater detail.  

Conversion Trigger

The conversion trigger is the event that leads to the conversion of the SAFE into equity. It is typically tied to a qualified financing round or a specific timeframe.

Conversion Mechanics

This provision outlines the details of the conversion process, including the type of equity (e.g., preferred stock) the investor will receive upon conversion and the conversion ratio used to determine the number of shares. The conversion mechanics provision ensures transparency and clarity, facilitating a smooth and straightforward conversion process for both the investor and the company.

Valuation Cap

A valuation cap provision establishes the maximum valuation at which the investor's SAFE will convert into equity. It provides protection for the investor by setting an upper limit on the company's valuation for the purpose of conversion. The valuation cap provision ensures that early-stage investors have an opportunity to share in the company's success without being disproportionately diluted.

Discount Rate

The discount rate provision offers an incentive to early-stage investors by entitling them to purchase shares of equity at a discounted price compared to later investors. It acknowledges their early support and willingness to take on higher risk.

Most Favored Nation

Really a type of investor right, the Most Favored Nation (MFN) provision is a safeguard included in a SAFE agreement to protect the original investor from being disadvantaged in subsequent financing rounds. It ensures that if the company issues SAFEs to new investors on more favorable terms, the original investor automatically receives the benefit of those improved terms, avoiding potential dilution.

Investor Rights

The investor rights provision outlines the rights and privileges granted to the investor in connection with their SAFE investment. These rights can include information rights, pro-rata rights, and more, ensuring that investors have access to relevant company information and the opportunity to maintain their ownership percentage in future financing rounds.

No Maturity Date or Interest

Unlike convertible notes, SAFEs do not have a maturity date or accrue interest. The absence of these components allows for a more flexible and equity-oriented investment structure that aligns with the unique needs and characteristics of early-stage startups.


The termination provision sets forth the conditions or events that lead to the termination of the SAFE agreement. Common triggers include a merger or acquisition of the company, dissolution of the company, or mutual agreement between the parties involved. The termination provision provides a level of certainty and protection for both the company and the investor.

Other Provisions

In addition to the key provisions mentioned above, SAFE agreements may include other clauses to address specific needs and circumstances. These provisions can cover topics such as founder lock-up periods, confidentiality obligations, and dispute resolution mechanisms. Careful consideration and negotiation of these additional provisions are crucial to ensure the interests of all parties involved are adequately protected.


SAFE agreements have revolutionized startup financing by offering simplicity, flexibility, and founder-friendly terms. Y Combinator SAFEs, in particular, have become widely adopted in the startup ecosystem, providing startups and investors with a streamlined approach to fundraising. However, it is essential to understand the specific provisions and considerations associated with SAFEs, as well as their distinctions from convertible notes. Seeking legal guidance and engaging in thoughtful negotiations can help ensure that SAFEs are effectively utilized to meet the fundraising objectives of startups while protecting the interests of all parties involved.

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I have become very impressed with the efficiency possibilities of AI. So, I gave ChatGPT a try. I generated this text in part with GPT-3, OpenAI's large-scale language-generation model. After it generated its own draft language, I reviewed, edited, revised, and expanded on it to my own liking and to ensure accuracy in all material respects. WLF takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this article.


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